Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word（s）for each numbered blank and mark A，B.C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. （10 points）
Being a good parent is，of course，what every parent would like to be. But defining what it means to be a good parent
is undoubtedly very 1。particularly since children respond differently to the same style of parenting. A calm，rule-following child might respond better to a different sort of parenting than，2，a younger one.
3，There's another sort of parent that's easier to4：a patient parent. Children of every age benefit from patient parenting. Still，5 every parent would like to be patient，this is no easy，6.Sometimes parents get exhausted and frustrated and are unable to maintain a 7 style with their kids. I understand this.
You' re only human, and sometimes your kids can 8 you just a little too far. And then the 9 happens: You lose your patience
and either scream at your kids or say something that was a bit too_10 and does nobody any good. You wish that you could_11 the clock and start over, We've all been there.
12, even though it's common, it's vital to keep in mind that in a single moment of fatigue. you can say something to your child that you may, 13 for a long time. This may not only do damage to your relationship with your child but also 14 your child's self-esteem.
If you consistently lose your.15 with your kids, then you are modeling a lack of emotional control for your kids. We are all becoming increasingly aware of the_16 of modeling patience for the younger generation. This is a skill that will help the mall throughout life. In fact,
the ability to maintain emotional control when_17 by stress is one of the most significant of all life's skills.
Certainly, it's incredibly. 18 _to maintain patience at all times with your children. A more practical goal is to try to be as calm as you can when faced with 19 _situations involving your children. I can promise you this: As a result of working toward this goal, you and your children will benefit and 20 from stressful moments feeling better physically and emotionally.
1. A. tedious B. pleasant C. instructive D. tricky
2. A. in addition B. for example C. at once D. by accident
3. A. fortunately B. occasionally C. accordingly D. eventually
4. A. amuse B. assist C. describe D. train
5. A. while B. because C. unless D. once
6. A. answer B. task C. choice D. access
7. A. tolerant B. formal C. rigid D. critical
8. A. move B. drag C. push D. send
9. A. mysterious B. illogical C. suspicious D. inevitable
10. A. boring B. naive C. harsh D. vague
11. A. turn back B. take apart C. set aside D. cover up
12. A. overall B. instead C. however D. otherwise
13. A. like B. miss C. believe D. regret
14. A. raise B. affect C. justify D. reflect
15. A. time B. bond C. race D. cool
16. A. nature B. secret C. importance D. context
17. A. cheated B. defeated C. confused D. confronted
18. A. terrible B. hard C. strange D. wrong
19.A.trying B. changing C. exciting D. surprising
20.A.hide B. emerge C. withdraw D. escape
Comprehension Part A Directions：
Read the following
four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A，B，C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.（40 points）
Rats and other animals need to be highly at tuned to social signals from others so that can identify friends to cooperate with and enemies to avoid. To find out if this extends to non-living beings，Loleh Quinn at the University of California，San Diego，and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals from robotic rats.
They housed eight adult rats with two types of robotic rat-one social and one asocial-for 5 our days. The robots rats were
quite minimalist，resembling a chunkier version of a computer mouse with wheels-to move around and colorful
During the experiment, the social robot rat followed the living rats around, played with the same toys, and opened caged doors to let trapped rats escape. Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side Next, the researchers trapped the robots in cages and gave the rats the opportunity to release them by pressing a lever.
Across 18 trials each, the living rats were 52 percent more likely on average to set the social robot free than the asocial one. This suggests that the rats perceived the social robot as a genuine social being. They may have bonded more with the social robot because it displayed behaviors like communal exploring and playing. This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favor when they get trapped, says Quinn.
The readiness of the rats to befriend the social robot was surprising given its minimal design. The robot was the same size as a regular rat but resembled a simple plastic box on wheels." We'd assumed we'd have to give it a moving head and tail, facial features, and put a scene on it to make it smell like a real rat, but that wasn't necessary,
"says Janet Wiles at the University of Queensland in Australia, who helped with the research.
The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic robots. Similarly, children tend to treat robots as if they are fellow beings, even when they display only simple social signals. "We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too, 'says Wiles.
21. Quinn and her
colleagues conducted a test to see if rats can
[A] pick up social signals from non-living rats
[B] distinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one
[C] attain sociable traits through special training
[D] send out warning messages to their fellow
22. What did the asocial robot do during the experiment?
[A] It followed the social robot.
[B] It played with some toys.
[C] It set the trapped rats free.
[D] It moved around alone.
23. According to
Quinn, the rats released the social robot because they_
[A] tried to practice a means of escape
[B] expected it to do the same in return
[C] wanted to display their intelligence
[D]considered that an interesting game
24.James Wiles notes that rats_
[A]can remember other rat's facial features
[B]differentiate smells better than sizes
[C]respond more to actions than to looks
[D]can be scared by a plastic box on wheels
25.It can be learned from the text that rats_
[A]appear to be adaptable to new surroundings
[B]are more socially active than other animals
[C]behave differently from children in socializing
[D]are more sensitive to social cues than expected
21.[A]pick up social signals from non-living rats.
细节题。根据题干中选项中“Quinn and her colleagues conducted a test to see if rats"可定位到第一段的第二句子 “To find out
if this extends to non-living beings，Loleh Quinn at the University of California，San Diego，and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals from robotic rats."
Loleh Quinn和他的同事们做该测试的目的是“to find out if this extends to non-living beings."，即A选项中的“pick up social signals from non-living rats”
22.答案选[D]It moved around alone.
细节题，改题目问在该实验中非社交机器人做什么。根据题干中关键词“the asocial robot do during the experiment"可回文定位到本文第二句子，即“the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side"，即他们只是前后，左右移动，与“It moved around alone'"吻合.
to do the same in return细节题，该题目问老鼠释放社交机器人的原因是什么，根据题意，该题目可定位到本文第五段最后一句...
wanting the robot to return the favor when they get trapped，'“wanting"-词即告诉我们这些老鼠这么做的原文，是希望，“当他们被困住是可以得到同样的回报”，即“expected it to do the same in return”
to actions than to looks细节题。根据题干中的关键词“James Wiles"，可回文定位到第六段后半部分，“We'd assumed we'd have to give it a moving head and tail，facial features，and put a scene on it to make it smell hike a real rat，but that wasn't necessary，"，即研究人员本以为他们需要给这些社交机器人装一个移动的头，尾巴，而部特征从而是它们更像.一个真正的老鼠，但事实证明，这些完全没必要，即这些老鼠并不在意这些机器人的外貌，而是他们的行动，即与“respond more to actions than to looks"吻合。
25.[D]are more sensitive to social cues than expected推断题。根据原文最后--段第一句话“The finding shows how sensitive rats
are to social cues，even when they come from basic robots."，这一发现显示了老鼠对社会线索的敏感程度，即使它们来自基本的机器人，即D选项中的“are more sensitive to social cues than expected"
It is true that CEO pay has gone up-top ones may make 300 times the pay of typical workers on average，and since the mid-1970s CEO pay for large publicly traded American corporations has，by varying estimates，gone up by about 500%. The typical CEO of a top American corporation now makes about S18.9 million a year.
The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly. The efforts of America's highest-earning 1% have been one of the more dynamic elements of the global economy. It's not popular to say, but one reason their pay has gone up so much is that CEO s really have upped their game relative to many other workers in the U.S. economy.
Today's CEO, at least for major American firms, must have many mere skills than simply being able to "run the company". CEOs must have a good sense of financial markets and maybe even how the company should trade in them. They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant.
Then there's the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before, with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. To lead in that system requires knowledge that is fairly mind-boggling plus, virtually all major American companies are beyond this major CEOs still have to do all the day-to-day work they have always done.
The common idea that high CEO pay is mainly about ripping people off doesn't explain history very well. By most measures,
corporate governance has become a lot tighter and more rigorous since the 1970s. Yet it is principally during this period of stronger governance that CEO pay has been high and rising. That suggests it is in the broader corporate interest to recruit top candidates for increasingly tough jobs.
Furthermore, the highest CEO salaries are paid to outside candidates, not to the cozy insider picks, another sign that high CEO pay is not some kind of depredation at the expense of the rest of the company. And the stock market reacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign that those practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.
26. Which of the
following has contributed to CEO pay rise?
[A] The growth in the number of corporations
[B] The general pay rise with a better economy
[C] Increased business opportunities for top firms
[D] Close cooperation among leading economies
27. Compared with their predecessors, today's CEOs are required to
[A] foster a stronger sense of teamwork
[B] finance more research and development
[C] establish closer ties with tech companies
[D] operate more globalized companies
28.CEO pay has been rising since the 1970s despite_
[A]continual internal opposition
[B]strict corporate governance
[C]conservative business strategies
[D]Repeated government warnings
29.High CEO pay can be justified by the fact that it hel
[A]confirm the status of CEOs[B]motivate inside candidates
[C]boost the efficiency of CEOs
[D]increase corporate value
30.The most suitable title for this text would be
[A]CEOs Are Not Overpaid
[B]CEO Pay：Past and Present
[C]CEOs' challenges of Today
[D]CEO Traits：Not Easy to Define
26.[C]Increased business opportunities for top firms此题属于简单题，答案出自第二段第一句
27.[D]operate more globalized companies此题属于简单题答案，但可能会有学生看到finance和public relations会容易错选B和C，B选项中的research和development对应不上信息，C 选项中的tech companies对应不上信息。答案出自第三段倒数第二句.
28.[B]strict corporate governance此题简单，定位于第四段第二句1970s处，找到对应词 strong governance.
29.[D]increase corporate value，此题简单，定位处在最后一段最后一句可以找到此信息
30.[A]CEOs are not overpaid答案出自最后一-段是对CEO持肯定态度，所以选择A
Madrid was hailed as a public health beacon last November when it rolled out ambitious restrictions on the most polluting
cars. Seven months and one election day later，a new conservative city council suspended enforcement of the clean air zone，a first step toward its possible demise.
Mayor Jose Luis Martinez-Almeida made opposition to the zone a centrepiece of his election campaign，despite its success in improving air quality. A judge has now overruled the city's decision to stop levying fines，ordering them reinstated. But with legal battles ahead，the zone's future looks uncertain at best.
Among other weaknesses, the measures cities must employ when left to tackle dirty air on their own are politically contentious, and therefore vulnerable. That's because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers-who must pay fees or buy better vehicles-rather than on to the car manufacturers whose cheating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.
It's not hard to imagine a similar reversal happening in London. The new ultra-low emission zone(Ulez) is likely to be a big issue in next year's mayoral election. And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.
It's not that measures such as London's Ulez are useless. Far from it. Local officials are using the levers that are available to them to safeguard residents "health in the face of a serious threat. The zones do deliver some improvements to air quality, and the science tells us that means real health benefits-fewer heart attacks, strokes and premature births, less cancer, dementia and asthma. Fewer untimely deaths.
But mayors and councilors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town.
They are acting because national govemments-Britain's and others across Europe-have failed to do so.
Restrictions that keep highly polluting cars out of certain areas-city centres, "school streets", even individual roads-are a response to the absence of a larger effort to properly enforce existing regulations and require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance.
Wales has introduced special low speed limits to minimize pollution.
We' re doing everything but insist that manufacturers clean up their cars.
31. Which of the following is true about Madrid's clean air zone?
[A] Its effects are questionable
[B] It has been opposed by a judge
[C] It needs tougher enforcement[D] Its fate is yet to be decided
32. Which is considered a weakness of the city-level measures to tackle dirty air?
[A] They are biased against car manufacturers.
[B] They prove impractical for city councils.
[C] They are deemed too mild for politicians.
[D] They put too much burden on individual motorists.
33. The author believes that the extension of London's Ulez will
[A] arouse strong resistance.
[B] ensure Khan's electoral success.
[C] improve the city's traffic.
[D] discourage car manufacturing.
34. Who does the author think should have addressed the problem?
[A] Local residents
[D] National governments.
35. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that auto companies
[A] ill raise low-emission car production
[B] should be forced to follow regulations
[C] will upgrade the design of their vehicles
[D] should be put under public supervision
31.答案选D：Its fate is yet to be decided.
此题为细节题，答案出处在第二段最后一句，But with legal battles ahead，the zone's future looks uncertain at best.
32.答案选D：They put too much burden on individual motorists.
此题为细节题，答案出处在第三段第二句，That's because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers，rather than on to the car manufacturers.言下之意，“他们太过注重对个人的处罚，而不是对汽车制造商的整治”，故答案选D。
33.答案选A：arouse strong resistance.
此题为推断题，答案出处在第四段第二句和第三句，通过第二句“The new ultra-low emission zone（Ulez）is likely to be a big issue in next year's mayoral election."可以看出the extension of London's Ulez将会带来负面的结果。加上第三句后半段，“it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected."中“spark intense opposition"可以推断出，其结果将会是引起抵制和反抗，故答案选A。
此题为细节题，答案出处在倒数第二段的第二句话，They are acting because national governments have failed to do so.言下之意，作者认为国家政府应该勇挑重担，解决问题，故答案选D。
35.答案选B：should be forced to follow regulations.
此题为推断题，答案出处在最后一-段最后一句，We're；doing everything but insist that manufacturers clean up their cars.也就是说，“我们最应该做的是让汽车制造商改进他们的车子，防止它们污染环境”，故答案选B。
Now that members of Generation Z are graduating college this spring-the most commonly-accepted definition says this generation was born after 1995，give or take a year-the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks. GenZs are about to hit the streets looking for work in a labor market that's tighter than it's been in decades. And employers are planning on hiring
about 17 percent more new graduates for jobs in the U.S. this year than last，according to a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers. Everybody wants to know how the people who will soon inhabit those empty office cubicles will differ from those who came before them.
If "entitled" is the most common adjective，fairly or not，applied to millennials（those born between 1981 and 1995），the catchwords for Generation Z are practical and cautious.
According to the career counselors and experts who study them，Generation Zs are clear-eyed, economic pragmatists. Despite graduating into the best economy in the past 50 years, Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck looks like. They were impressionable kids during the crash of 2008, when many of their parents lost their jobs or their life savings or both. They aren't
interested in taking any chances. The booming economy seems to have done little to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxious urgency, especially for those who have college debt. College loan balances in the U.S. now stand at
a record S1.5 trillion, according to the Federal Reserve.
One survey from Accenture found that 88 percent of graduating seniors this year chose their major with a job in mind.
In a 2019 survey of University of Georgia students, meanwhile, the career office found the most desirable trait in a future employer was the ability to offer secure employment(followed by professional development and training, and then inspiring purpose). Job security or stability was the second most important career goal(work-life balance was number one), followed by a sense of being dedicated to a cause or to feel good about serving the greater good.
36. Generation Zs graduating college this spring_
[A] are recognized for their abilities
[B] are in favor of job offers
[C] are optimistic about the labor market
[D] are drawing growing public attention
37. Generation Zs are keenly aware_
[A] what a tough economic situation is like
[B] what their parents expect of them
[C] how they differ from past generations[D] how valuable a counselor's advice is
38. The word "assuage"(line 9, para 2) is closet in meaning to
39. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that Generation Zs_
[A] care little about their job performance
[B] give top priority to professional training
[C] think it hard to achieve work-Life balance
[DJ have a clear idea about their future job.
40. Michelsen thinks that compared with millennials, Generation ZS are_
36.答案选D：are drawing growing public attention.
此题为细节题，答案出处在第一段第--句的最后部分，Now that members of Generation Z are graduating college this spring-the most commonly-accepted definition says this generation was born after 1995，give or take a year-the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks.
37.答案选A：what a tough economic situation is like.
此题为细节题，答案出处在第二段第三句，Despite graduating into the best economy in the past 50 years，Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck looks like.
此题为猜词题，“assuage"所在句的语义大致为，“蓬勃发展的经济对于抚平焦虑并没什么用，尤其是对有贷款的学生来说”，assuage后搭配的宾语是sense of anxious urgency，所以应选类似于“抚平、安慰、缓解”之类的词。
39.答案选D：have a clear idea about their future job.
此题为推断题，A选项原文并未提及：从原文第三段第二句括号内的部分可看出B选项中的professional training并不是排在首位的，排首位的是secure employment；而C中的work-life balance 确实是毕业生关心的，但并未提及，hard to achieve。所以只有D个选项是对所有内容的一个概括。
从通篇可以看出Generation Z虽然出生于全球经济发 展期，但他们的成长经历了金融危机，所以他们目睹了父母在经济萧条时期的惨淡，故他们在经济上会相对保守些。
Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs（41-45）.There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.（10 points）
[A]Give compliments，just not too many.
[B]Put on a good face，always.
[C]Tailor your interactions.
[D] Spend time with everyone.
[E] Reveal, don't hide information.
[F] Slow down and listen.
[G] Put yourselves in others' shoes.
Five Ways to Win Over Everyone in the Office Is it possible to like everyone in your office?
Think about how tough it is to get together 15 people, much less 50, who all get along perfectly. But unlike in friendships, you need coworkers. You work with them every day and you depend on them just as they depend on you. Here are some ways that you can get the whole office on your side.
If you have a bone to pick with someone in your workplace, you may try stay tight-lipped around them. But you won't be helping either one of you. A Harvard Business School study found that observers consistently rated those who were frank about themselves more highly, while those who hid lost trustworthiness. The lesson is not that you should make your personal life an open book, but rather, when given the option to offer up details about yourself or painstakingly conceal them, you should just be honest.
Just as important as being honest about yourself is being receptive to others. We often feel the need to tell others how we feel, whether it's a concern about a project, a stray thought, or a compliment. Those are all valid, but you need to take time to hear out your coworkers, too. In fact, rushing to get your own ideas out there can cause colleagues to feel you don't value their opinions. Do your best to engage coworkers in a genuine, back-and-forth conversation, rather than prioritizing your own thoughts.
It's common to have a "cubicle mate" or special confidant in a work setting. But in addition to those trusted coworkers, you should expand your horizons and find out about all the people around you. Use your lunch and coffee breaks to meet up with colleagues you don't always see. Find out about their lives and interests beyond the job. It requires minimal effort and goes a long way. This will help to grow your internal network, in addition to being a nice break in the work day.
Positive feedback is important for anyone to hear. And you don't have to be someone's boss to tell them they did an exceptional job on a particular project. This will help engender good will in others. But don't overdo it or be fake about it. One study found that people responded best to comments that shifted from negative to positive，possibly because it suggested they had won somebody over.
This one may be a bit more difficult to pull off，but it can go a long way to achieving results. Remember in dealing with any coworker what they appreciate from an interaction. Watch out for how they verbalize with others. Some people like small talk in a meeting before digging into important matters，while other are more straightforward. Jokes that work one person won't necessarily land with another. So，adapt your style accordingly to type.
Consider the person that you're dealing with in advance and what will get you to your desired outcome.
42.答案选择F：Slow down and listen答案出自段落最后一句，要back-and-forth the conversation，反反复复参与到谈话中，而不是提前说出自己的想法。
43.答案选择D：Spend time with everyone答案出自第三句和最后一句，lunch and coffee break指的是休息时间，是要花费时间。
44.答案选择A：Give compliments，just not too many，答案出自段落中的一二三句，尤其是是第三局，转折句后信息don't overdo it更加明确选择not too many
45.答案选择C：tailor your interactions tailor有调整的含义，答案在段落第二句祈使句和最后两句总结句中，正 好对应这几句中的interaction和adapt
Section III Translation
following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.（15 points）
It's almost impossible to go through life without experiencing some kind of failure. But，the wonderful thing about failure is that it's entirely up to us to decide how to look at it.
We can choose to see failure as "the end of the world，"or as proof of just how inadequate we are. Or，we can look at failure as the incredible learning experience that it often is. Every time we fail at something，we can choose to look for the lesson we're meant to learn. These lessons are very important；they're how we grow，and how we keep from making that same mistake again. Failures stop us only if we let them.
Failure can also teach us things about ourselves that we would never have learned otherwise. For instance，failure can help you discover how strong a person you are. Failing at something can help you discover your truest friends，or help you find unexpected motivation to succeed.
Section IV Writing
Suppose you are planning a tour of a historical site for a group international students. Write an email to
（1）tell them about the site，and.
（2）give them some tips for the tour.
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET.DO not use your own name. Use "Li Ming" instead.
It's very glad to know you are going to visit China. Since all of you are quite interested in Chinese culture, I am planning a tour to a famous historical site, the Palace Museum for you. Here are a brief introduction of the site and some tips for the tour that I'd like to share with you.
The Palace Museum is located in Beijing, which is one of the most famous historical sites of China. Inside the Museum are millions of cultural relics, from which you can get the whole picture of the history of China and the lives of Chinese emperors as well. For a smooth tour, You'd better carry your student ID cards, with which you will enjoy a discounted ticket.
And it's not a good idea to take any food with you, when you are visiting the Museum. Once again, welcome to China. I'm looking
forward to seeing you soon. If there is any further information you'd like to know, please don t hesitate to contact me.
Directions：Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing，you should
1）interpret the chart，and
2）give your comments You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.（15 points）
As described in the chart，we can find dramatic differences with regard to reading purposes of college students by mobile phones in a certain university. Specifically，reading for other reasons occupies merely 2.2%. Besides, a growing percent of aims in terms of killing time and searching information takes place, which account for 21.3% and 22.0% respectively. Most amazingly, the objective of learning knowledge takes a lion's share, representing 54.5%.
What leads to this fact? From my perspective, there are two main reasons for it. Firstly, the advance in technology of mobile phones plays a key role in the convenience and efficiency in learning. Instead of carrying numerous books in bags, students tend to download useful materials into these electronic devices to meet their continuous demands in study.
Consequently, learning becomes the default state in their life.
Secondly, the shift of students' awareness puts a crucial impact on this fact. An overwhelming majority of them use phones for learning rather than entertainment. It obviously reflects their expectation to enrich themselves and broaden their horizons, especially under the huge competitive stress in modern society.
To sum it up, we may conclude that this phenomenon will continue in the forthcoming days.